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MLA Citation Style, 9th Edition: Works Cited

Guidelines for Works Cited Lists

  • A list of works cited provides an alphabetical list of sources used in a paper, article, or book. It is found on a new page at the end of the text.
  • Each entry in a list of works cited must cite a source that was directly referenced in the text.
  • If you wish to list sources that you consulted but did not cite, title the list "Works Cited and Consulted."
  • If your list includes only one source, title the list "Work Cited."
  • Works cited entries are listed in one alphabetical sequence arranged by the surname of the first author or by title if there is no author.
  • Begin the first line of each works cited entry at the left margin. Indent all subsequent lines, if there are any, one-half inch from the left margin. This is called a hanging indent.
  • Title the first page of your list of works cited "Works Cited" and centre the title. Leave one blank line between the title and the first entry.
  • Double-space each entry and leave one blank line between entries.
  • If the bibliography includes two or more entries by the same author(s), list them alphabetically by title. Three hyphens (---) replace the author's name after the first entry. See the example below:

              Bickerton, Derek. Language & Species. U of Chicago P, 1990.

              ---. More than Nature Needs: Language, Mind, and Evolution. Harvard UP, 2014.

  • Entries do not have to include the publication medium unless needed for clarity (e.g., print, web, DVD, radio).
  • The MLA Handbook now requires the use of a URL for a Web source (without http:// or https://).
  • Provision of DOIs (digital object identifiers) is encouraged (but be sure to format them as hyperlinks, including http:// or https://).

For an example of a paper with a list of works cited, see Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) website.