The MLA Handbook is a writing guide published by the Modern Language Association of America. It includes tips and recommendations on all steps of the writing process, from choosing a topic to finding and evaluating sources to outlining, writing, and citing. It also provides guidelines on spelling, grammar, and paper formatting. The Handbook is widely used in the humanities, particularly in English.
This guide focuses on the citation guidelines presented in the Handbook, providing examples of citations for a wide variety of sources. This guide follows the 9th edition of the Handbook, published in 2021.
You can navigate to the citation examples through the "Guide Contents" list on the left (situated on the right side of every other page), through the tabs across the top of the guide, or through these links:
Be sure to check out the General Guidelines page as well for general rules on writing parenthetical references and works cited entries. The Plagiarism page offers information to help you understand what plagiarism is and how to avoid it.
Should you have a citation problem that this guide doesn't answer, it is best to consult the Handbook for more information (see links below). Also, don't forget that you can ask any citation question to one of our helpful library staff (see the Library Help box on the right).