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Chicago Citation Style, 17th Edition: Bibliography

A University of Lethbridge Library guide to Chicago Manual of Style citations.

Guidelines for Bibliographies

  • A bibliography provides an alphabetical list of sources used in a paper, article, or book. It is located at the end of the work, after endnotes, if they are being used. If there is an index, it should follow the bibliography (see the Manual, 14.62).
  • Bibliography entries are listed in one alphabetical sequence arranged by the surname of the first author or by title if there is no author.
  • Bibliography entries may occasionally be classified by type of source (e.g., primary sources, secondary sources). See the Manual, 14.63, and/or consult with your instructor to confirm which method you should use.
  • Some sources, such as well-known general dictionaries and encyclopedias, sacred texts, and personal communications, are typically not included in the bibliography. Consult the examples in this guide or the Manual for more information.
  • List bibliography entries with a hanging indent.
  • The first page of the bibliography is typically titled "Bibliography."
  • Individual entries are usually single-spaced, with a blank line separating entries.
  • Use the author's given names and surname as listed on the title page of a book or other stand-alone work or at the head of a journal article or the like. If there is more than one author, list them in the order in which they appear with the source.
  • If the bibliography includes two or more entries by the same author(s), list them alphabetically by title. A 3-em dash (———) may replace the author's name after the first entry. For more information, see the Manual, 14.67-14.71.
    • e.g. Israel, Jonathan I. Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation
                    of Man, 1670-1752
      . New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
             ———. Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, 1650-1750. Oxford:
                    Oxford University Press, 2001.
  • A bibliography may also include relevant sources that the author consulted but were not cited in the work. Be careful when including such entries, as you do not want to give the impression that you are padding your bibliography. 

For an example of a paper with a bibliography, see Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) website.