Example 1 – DVD
IT: (It's a Wonderful Life)
WC: It's a Wonderful Life. Directed by Frank Capra. 1946. Republic, 2001.
Example 2 – Videocassette
IT: (Last Days)
WC: The Last Days of Okak. Directed by Anne Budgell and Nigel Markham, National Film Board of Canada, 1985.
Example 3 – Performance
WC: Geller, Sarah Michelle, performer. Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Mutant Enemy, 1997-2003.
If your discussion of a work focuses on the contribution of a particular person - say, the performance of an actor or the ideas of the screenwriter - begin the entry with his or her name, followed by a descriptive label.
Example 4 – Online Presentation
IT: (Bittman 3:56)
WC: Bittman, Mark. "What's Wrong with What We Eat." Ted.com. Ted Conference, LLC, Dec 2007. Web. 18 May 2009,
NOTE: Works cited entries for works with no author are alphabetized by title. Ignore initial articles (a, an, the). If the title is longer than a few words, abbreviate it in the parenthetical reference, as shown above. For ease of reference, ensure that your abbreviated title begins with the same word as the full title.
For works with no page numbers, such as video recordings, it is preferable to include the author's name, or, in the case of a source with no author, the title, in the text and omit a parenthetical reference altogether.
If it is relevant, include the original release date between the director and distributor, followed by a period (see the first example above).