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APA Citation Style, Seventh Edition: Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers

Section 8.9

In General: 
  • If the information you are citing has been recorded in a form recoverable by the reader (e.g. in a book or journal article), cite it in text and include the appropriate reference entry. 
  • If the information you are citing has not been recorded (e.g., conversation or email) use the variation on a personal communication citation below. 
  • It is important to provide as much information as is necessary to describe the content and contextualize the information. 

NOTE: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol. If you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

 
General Format 
 
      In-Text Citation: 
(First Name Last Name, Nation OR Specific Indigenous group to which they belong, their location, any other details you consider relevant, personal communication, Month Day, Year) 
      
     References:
     Not Included. 
  
Example
 
      In-Text Citation: 
(Cathy Hunt, Kainai Nation, Elder at University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, personal communication, November 2019)
     
     References:
     Not Included.