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APA Citation Style, Seventh Edition: Reference List Guidelines

What to Title Your Reference List 

How to Format Your References 

How to Order Your References 

How to Order Works with the Same Author

How to Order Works with the Same Author and the Same Date 

How to Format Work Titles 

How to Format DOIs and URLs 


Numbers in parentheses refer to sections in the APA Manual, Seventh Edition.   


What to Title Your Reference List (2.12) 

Start the reference list on a new page after the body of the text, but before any tables, figures, or appendices. Label the list "References" with the title bolded and centred.


How to Format Your References (2.12) 

Double-space all reference list entries. All references should be formatted with a hanging indent, meaning that the first line of the reference is flush left and all subsequent lines are intended by 0.5 inches. 


How to Order Your References  (9.44) 

Order your references alphabetically by the first word of the reference entry. Usually, this is the first author's surname, but in some cases it will be the title of the work. In APA Style alphabetization "nothing precedes something," meaning that Anders, Y. J. precedes Anderson, E. L., even though "o" precedes "y" in the alphabet. Disregard spaces, punctuation marks, and anything in parentheses or square brackets. 


How to Order Works with the Same Author ​(9.46) 

When ordering references by the same author, include the author's surname and initials in every entry. Entries are then arranged chronologically by date (n.d. coming first). One-author entries should come before multiple-author entries beginning with the same first author, even if the the work with multiple authors was published first. 


How to Order Works with the Same Author and the Same Date (9.47) 

For references with the same author and the same date, use letters after the date to order the entries. References should be alphabetized by title, disregarding the words "A," "An," and "The."


Jones, C. D. (n.d.-a). Examination of …

Jones, C. D. (n.d.-b). Welsh perceptions …        

Smith, A. B. (2019a). How do …

Smith, A. B. (2019b). A study of …


How to Format Work Titles  (9.19, 9.24)

Use italics for the titles of books, journals, reports, webpages, and websites. Do not italicize the titles of journal articles and edited book chapters. Titles of journal articles, books, edited book chapters, reports, webpages, and websites should be capitalized using sentence case (i.e., capitalize them as you would sentences). Titles of periodicals (e.g., journals, newspapers, magazines) should be capitalized using title case.


How to Format DOIs and URLs ​(9.34-9.36) 

Include Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) in reference entries whenever they are available, even if you used the print version. If a DOI is not available, include the URL only if you used the online version. (See section 9.34 of the Manual for more information.) Format both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks (i.e., beginning with "http://" or "https:.//"). It is acceptable to use either default display settings (usually blue and underlined) or plain text that is not underlined. Use of URL shorteners like tinyURL or is also acceptable.


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