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APA Citation Style, Seventh Edition: In-Text Citation Guidelines

Citations In Text

How to Cite a Direct Quotation

How to Cite Summaries or Paraphrases

How to Cite Information when no Page Numbers Are Available

How to Cite Sources When the Primary Authors Have the Same Surname

How to Cite Works with More Than One Author

How to Cite Names with Suffixes

How to Cite Information When You Have not Seen the Original Source

How to Cite When You Are Altering a Direct Quote

 

Numbers in parentheses refer to sections in the APA Manual, Seventh Edition.
 

How to Cite a Direct Quotation (8.25-8.36)

When you incorporate a direct quotation into a sentence, you must cite the source. Enclose quotations in quotation marks and incorporate them into your sentences such that the sentences are grammatically correct.
 
 
Gibaldi (2003) indicates that “Quotations are effective in research papers when used selectively” (p. 109).
Remember that “quotations are effective in research papers when used selectively” (Gibaldi, 2003, p. 109).
In 2003, Gibaldi wrote that “quotations are effective in research papers when used selectively” (p. 109).
 
 
If a quotation is 40 words or more, omit quotation marks and use a block format in which the quotation is indented ½ inch from the left margin.

 

How to Cite Summaries or Paraphrases (8.23-8.24)

Even if you put information in your own words by summarizing or paraphrasing, you must cite the original author or researcher and the date of publication. You are also encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number; check with your instructor to see if page numbers are required.

For example, a paraphrase of Gibaldi’s earlier quotation might read as follows:

Within the research paper, quotations will have more impact when used judiciously (Gibaldi, 2003, p. 109).

 

How to Cite Information When no Page Numbers Are Available (8.28)

If a resource contains no page numbers, as can be the case with electronic sources, then you cannot include a page number in the parentheses. However, you may provide a section or heading name, a paragraph number, or both.
 
As Myers (2000) aptly phrased it, "this is ridiculous" (para. 5).
(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion, para. 1)

 

For information on audiovisual works, works with canonically numbered sections (e.g., religious works), and plays, see Section 8.28 of the Manual.
 

How to Cite Sources When the Primary Authors Have the Same Surname (8.20)

If two or more of your sources are written by authors with the same surname, include the first author's initials with the surname in every in-text reference.
 
Among the selected studies, we review M. A. Light and Light (2008) and I. Light (2006) .

 

How to Cite Works with More Than One Author (8.17)

When a work has two authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs. When a work has three or more authors, use the surname of the first author followed by "et al."

Swann et al. (2012) questioned the conclusions Sparrow and Barbossa (2010) drew from the study.

Note: There is a helpful chart on how to cite references with different numbers of authors in Section 8.17 of the Manual.
 
 

How to Cite Names with Suffixes (8.10)

In an in-text citation, use the author's last name only; there is no need to include the suffix (e.g., Jr., Sr., III).

 

How to Cite Information When You Have not Seen the Original Source (8.6)

Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original document. In this case, because you did not read the original, you will include only the source you did consult in your References. The words “as cited in” in the parenthetical reference indicate you have not read the original research.
 
Fong’s 1987 study (as cited in Bertram, 1996) found that older students’ memory can be as good as that of young people, but this depends on how memory is tested. [Do not include Fong (1987) in your References; do include Bertram (1996).]

 

How to Cite When you are Altering a Direct Quote (8.30-8.31)

When you choose to omit part of a quotation to make it fit grammatically or because it contains irrelevant/unnecessary information, insert ellipses (…):
 
         Byers (1999) states that "the long and the short of it is that … the point will be made" (pp. 167-168).
 
If you must add or slightly change words within a quotation for reasons of grammar or clarity, indicate the change with square brackets:
 
         Scott (2003) states that "he [Wilfrid Laurier] opposed conscription during the war" (p. 39).

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